Saturday, May 23, 2020
Quantitative vs. Qualitative: A Comparative Analysis of Research Methods Engaging in a research project can be a frightening and intimidating task for anyone. However, Polansky and Waller (2015) provide a six-step process that is designed to simplify the research process by alleviating anxiety and ensuring that the researcher is able to complete the project in a timely manner. The first step is defining the problem so that it is clearly understood. Once there is clarity on what needs to be done or of what is required, the focus can shift towards completion of the project. Step two is laying out the research objectives that need to be accomplished in order to arrive at a solution to the research question. Next, a determination is made on the best course of action to acquire the required information. Once a suitable framework is selected, it is time to move on to the fourth step, which is gathering data. The fifth step involves analyzing and deciphering the data and putting it all into a usable format that answers the research question. Finally, we arrive at step six, which means the research question has been answered, and the results are ready for presentation (Polansky Waller, 2015). Research in its most elementary form can be described as the activities that enable us to expand our knowledge. The process involves the gathering and synthesis of information so that the facts surrounding a given problem can be analyzed and a suitable answer or alternative solution to theShow MoreRelated The Nature of Quantitative Research Essay1334 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Nature of Quantitative Research Quantitative Research Defined: According to Huysamen (1997), descriptions of quantitative research typically discern a cycle of successive phases of hypothesis formulation, data collection, analysis and interpretation. 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AccordingRead MoreCyber Safety For Adolescent Girls : Bullying, Harassment, Sexting, Pornography, And Solicitation1279 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesreview will address the strengths and weaknesses within this article to examine the methods of the interventions applied in this article to help minimize the health factors and risks associated with online abuse by aggressors, also with the help of the victims parents, teachers and adults to support those going through a difficult period in their lives. To examine a more in-depth analysis of the research methods used in comparison to the two jour nal articles relating to this topic. The authorRead MoreManagement Research Methods3161 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesABSTRACT This assignment emphasizes on Research Methods used in Management industry as mentioned in the title of this module. Research has become a very integral part of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s industry, no matter in which area one wants to start the business or service, research has to be involved. 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Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Alexander the Great was the son of King Philip II of Macedonia and one of his wives, Olympias, a daughter of the non-Macedonian King Neoptolemus I of Epirus. At least, thats the conventional story. As a great hero, there are other more miraculous versions of the conception. Name:Ã Alexander III of MacedonDates:Ã c. 20 July 356 B.C. - 10 June 323.Place of Birth and Death:Ã Pella and BabylonDates of Rule:Ã 336-323Parents:Ã Philip II of Macedonia and OlympiasOccupation:Ã Ruler and military leader Alexander was born around July 20, 356 B.C. Being non-Macedonian made Olympias status lower than the Macedonian woman Philip later married. As a result, there was much conflict between Alexanders parents. As a Youth Alexander was tutored by Leonidas (possibly his uncle) and the great Greek philosopher Aristotle. During his youth, Alexander showed great observational powers when he tamed the wild horse Bucephalus. In 326, when his beloved horse died, he renamed a city in India/Pakistan, on the banks of the Hydaspes (Jhelum) river, for Bucephalus. Our image of Alexander is youthful because that is how his official portraits depictÃ him. See Photos of Alexander the Great in Art. As Regent In 340 B.C., while his father Philip went off to fight rebels, Alexander was made regent in Macedonia. During his regency, the Maedi of northern Macedonia revolted. Alexander put down the revolt and renamed their city after himself.Ã In 336 after his father was assassinated, he became ruler of Macedonia. The Gordian Knot One legend about Alexander the Great is that when he was in Gordium, Turkey, in 333, he undid the Gordian Knot. This knot had been tied by the legendary, fabulously wealthy King Midas. The prophecy about the Gordian knot was that the person who untied it would rule all of Asia. Alexander the Great is said to have undone the Gordian Knot not by unraveling it, but by slashing through it with a sword. Major Battles Battle of the Granicus - 334 B.C. (western Turkey) against Persian satraps with Greek mercenaries.Battle of Issus - 333 B.C. (Hatay province of Turkey) against King Darius of Persia.Battle of Gaugamela - 331 B.C. (northern Iraq) against King Darius of Persia.Battle of the Hydaspes (Jhelum) - 326 B.C. (northern Punjab, in modern Pakistan) against King Poros, who ruled a small kingdom, but had war elephants. Near the end of Alexanders expansion. (Although Alexander had intended to go further, and was soon thwarted by his own men, he thought he was near the edge of the earth.) Death In 323, Alexander the Great returned to Babylonia where he became ill suddenly and died. The cause of his death is unknown. It could have been disease or poison. It might have had to do with a wound inflicted in India. Alexanders successors were the Diadochi Wives Alexander the Greats wives were, first, Roxane (327), and then, Statiera/Barsine, and Parysatis. When, in 324, he married Stateira, daughter of Darius, and Parysatis, daughter of Artaxerxes III, he did not repudiate the Sogdian princess Roxane. The wedding ceremony took place in Susa and at the same time, Alexanders friend Hephaestion married Drypetis, Stateiras sister. Alexander provided dowries so that 80 of his companions could also marry noble Iranian women. Reference: Pierre BriantsÃ Alexander the Great and His Empire. Children Herakles, son of Alexanders wife/mistress Barsine [Sources: Alexander the Great and His Empire, by Pierre Briant and Alexander the Great, by Philip Freeman]Alexander IV, son of Roxane Both children were killed before they reached adulthood. Source: www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID71keyword_id12titleChildren Alexander the Great- Children Alexander the Great Quizzes Why Did Alexander Burn Persepolis QuizAlexander the Great Quiz I - The Early YearsAlexander the Great Quiz II - From Empire-Building to Death Other Articles on Alexander the Great What Color Was Alexanders Hair?Was Alexander the Great a Greek?
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The ServicemenÃ¢â¬â¢s Readjustment Act of 1944 is considered one of the best pieces of legislation to emerge from the Second World War (White). This Act, known as the GI Bill, was signed into law on June 22, 1944, and has through the decades had a profound effect on American society (White). For example, more than 21 million veterans have received educational benefits and some 14 million have been able to purchase homes through the home-loan program (White). We will write a custom essay sample on The Best Pieces of Legeslation,The ServicemenÃ¢â¬â¢s Act of 1944 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Sixty years later, the GI Bill is still a major source of veteran benefits and an attractive inducement for enlistments (White). The World War II veterans were a generation that had grown up during the Depression Era, many living in tenement apartments and cold-water flats, or on rural farming communities and small towns (Mettler). Most of this generation expected to enter the same type of work as their fathers, however the GI Bill allowed them a remarkable opportunity to gain an education and the means to own their own home (Mettler). Some became teachers, electricians, engineers, college professors, physicians, scientists, and dentists (Mettler). This Bill literally changed the future of an entire generation (Mettler). Moreover, the GI Bill fueled the development of the middle class and revitalized American democracy, as many veterans joined fraternal groups and community organizations and became involved in postwar era politics (Mettler). The GI Bill was the most far-reaching item of veteransÃ¢â¬â¢ legislation that has been passed in the history of the United States, allowing low interest rates, and low or no down payment for homes and farms, in addition to low-interest loads for high education (Baby). The United States had endured the era of the Great Depression and the Dust Bow, thus the World War II veterans were a generation that had been hardened by poverty, and many deprived of home and job security (Baby). The GI Bill allowed them to achieve the American Dream (Baby). Many of these veterans returned home from the Warm married and started families, began and finished their education, bought their first homes and secured employment (Baby). The GI Bill created a mass move to the suburbs, where veterans found suitable housing in the new tracts that sprawled on the outskirts of major cities (Baby). This postwar suburban housing boom began in a Ã¢â¬Å"planned communityÃ¢â¬ called Levittown (Baby). Ã¢â¬Å"Levittowns are located in rural New York and Pennsylvania,Ã¢â¬ and are named after developer William J. Levitt, who constructed the communities with Ã¢â¬Å"prefabricated units and mass production techniques, beginning in 1947Ã¢â¬ (Baby). Soon large-scale, planned communities and housing tracts were being built throughout the United States, filled with young couples giving birth to a new generation, the Baby Boomers (Baby). Eventually, these suburban tracts were surrounded by new schools, strip malls and businesses, and became new communities and new townships (Baby). Farm and ranch land became seas of similar-looking homes, a trend that continues today (Baby). How to cite The Best Pieces of Legeslation,The ServicemenÃ¢â¬â¢s Act of 1944, Papers
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Food Handling Guidelines in Hospital Based Care. Answer: Introduction: Responsible for making sure that the food they are serving, meets all the levels of safety. From the levels of production, processing, storage as well as preparation, food handlers are responsible for every steps of the process (Lopez et al., 2013). When a person falls sick in a hospital due to the food consumed over there, the cardinal principle of hospital care stands challenged, after all hospitals are supposed to ensure that no harm befalls on the patient. Hospital Associated Infections (HAI) has been the main reason why most of the times people fall sick during their stay in the hospital (Porsbol, Jensen Norung, 2013). Along with invasive procedures, immuno compromised states, patients on ventilators or catheters; the food, which is being consumed at the hospitals, is also responsible for patients in contracting HAI. In this essay, evidence based research has been carried out where the topic, food handling guidelines in hospitals, has been explored. The spread of the infection through the pathogens in the hospital context has been focused by carrying out evidence-based research. The quality control and safety of the patients and staff has been considered and a comparative study has been carried out. The comparison has been drawn between the food handling guidelines modeled in New Zealand against the rest of the world. Spread of Infection while Handling Food in Hospitals The main organisms causing foodborne diseases especially in a hospital are Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Toxoplasma gondii, STEC (Shiga- toxin producing E. coli), Giardia intestinalis, Norovirus, Cryptosporidium (Kadariya, Smith Thapaliya, 2014). The evidence-based studies which has explanation of the spread of the infection has been given below. Most of the studies are within the evidence levels III-VII. Since they are not very high on the list of level of evidence therefore it can be assumed that there is little information available on this particular aspect. Mostly, the outbreaks are hardly ever reported and recorded by the hospital authorities. Belliot et al., (2014) had carried a study on the food borne pathogen Norovirus causing gastroenteritis. The study was a Level IV evidence based research where the results were obtained from a cohort study sample. This particular paper has been chosen because the study deals with norovirus and its role in causing gastroenteritis among patients in the hospital. Being a causative organism for HAI, this evidence was chosen. In this study prevalence of the disease in a health care system was analyzed which showed that unhygienic conditions while serving food has been the reason for immune compromised patients at the hospitals to have contracted the disease. Patients who have undergone transplantation procedures in organs such as intestine, heart, kidney, liver, pancreas, are susceptible in contracting the infection by the Norovirus. The virus not only contaminates food, but if the food handlers are not careful, the virus can contaminate even water. From the aspect of New Zealand, the gov ernment for patients infected with Norovirus has spent a hefty sum of $3 million. The pathogen affects the staff as well as the patients and can only be curbed by practicing hygienic standards while handling food. Bitler et al. (2013)(Level III) and Trivedi et al. (2012)(Level III) have made similar reports. Pinto et al. (2015) had carried a study of a hospital food in Brazil and had found out with the help of the microbiological assay that the food samples were contaminated with traces of Pseudomonas sp. The study was a Level VI evidence based study where evidences were collected from a qualitative study. The food samples were tested for Staphylococcus, Salmonella and Listeria too. The patients who are the participants of Enteral Nutrition Therapy (ENT) were susceptible to microbial contamination of food. The food is mostly rich in macro and micronutrients for the patients who are deficient in nutrition and this allows the microorganisms to thrive and increases the risk of HAI. The study revealed that it is not possible to test the presence of the microbial contamination before consumption because the food ha to be consumed soon. Stewardson et al. (2014) had carried a study where he had assessed the contamination of hospital food by Extended-spectrum -lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). The study was a Level VI evidence based study where evidences were collected from a qualitative study. Catering services, that provide their services to the hospitals in Geneva, has been found to use poultry, which has been contaminated with ESBL-PE along with -lactamase residue. The staff who had consumed the same food was found to be affected by it. It was later determined that the administration of antibiotics to the poultry has resulted into such a situation. Lee Greig (2013) had carried out a study where they had reviewed the Salmonella outbreaks from the nosocomial aspects in the hospital. Contaminated food was identified to one of the several reasons responsible for causing the outbreak. The study was a Level V evidence based study as the data that were collected were of systematic reviews, which had carried out a qualitative analysis. The study found out that the pathogen was infecting the patients through food. The source was identified as raw and uncooked foods such as eggs and other animal products. The food borne Salmonella outbreaks can only be stopped by practicing safe and hygienic cooking at the kitchen in the hospitals. MMWR (CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report) (2012) presented a report where a State Psychiatric Hospital in Lousiana had faced an outbreak of food borne infection by the pathogen Clostridium perfringens. The report can be classified as Level VII evidence based study where an expert committee, such as CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention), has presented the report. The food served to the patients was found to be the main reason of infection. It was noted that the meat that was served to the patient was not properly cooked and was served as ingredient for cold chicken sandwich and salad. The hospital appeared to have violated the sanitary code of the Lousiana state. Quality and Safety of the Patients and Staff: Recommendations Quality and safety of the patients and staff can be ensured by practicing safety measures to curb the spread of the food borne diseases at the hospitals. The following steps can be followed in order to ensure quality control and safety, were given by the Australian Food Safety Information Council (2014), such as, training the hospital staff to maintain a clean and safe environment, promote awareness in regard to HAI, staff health should be monitored; waste disposal at the hospital should be also monitored, sterility should be on top of the priority list in every aspect of hospital care to prevent food borne outbreak at the hospital (Mullan et al., 2016). Care should also be taken that the foods are being cooked properly in order to reduce the chances of cross-contamination. The food should also be maintained at a proper temperature in order to prevent microbial growth. In respect to evidence based study, Abdul-Mutalib et al. (2012)(Level IV) carried out a study, which pointed out the importance of maintaining personal hygiene in respect to the food handlers. Along with the patients, they are also exposed to the food borne pathogens. Most of the times, the food handlers are the vectors for the pathogens and therefore, practices like wearing clean and sterile gloves while handling food items, wearing clean clothes, not wearing accessories and using clean utensils, are important in order to prevent the micro organisms from multiplying and causing infection. Fox Friefeld (2012)(Level VI) have carried out a review on neutropenic diet as a novel move towards reducing chances on HAI. Neutropenic diet refers to a diet especially designed for the cancer patient where there is a limitation is levied on the content of the diet. The measure was imposed to reduce the chances of the cancer patients from contracting gastro intestinal tract related pathogens. For cancer patients who are already undergoing chemotherapy, has their immunity challenged. Due to this, they are fall prey to the disease causing pathogens easily giving them a bout of HAI. Therefore, they are given a neutropenic diet, which is also known as sterile diet or low bacteria diet or low microbial diet. Oludare et al. (2016)(Level III) has pointed the necessity for maintain food safety at the hospitals and went onto stating the guidelines the food handlers should take into accord so the patient do not develop a bout of HAI. They have stated that while cooking the raw and the fresh food should be prepared separately. Once defrosted, the food item should never be frozen back. The food handlers should wear masks and gloves while preparing or serving food. In short, the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) guidelines should be maintained in order to meet the standards of food safety. Castle et al. (2014)(Level III) and Jevsnik et al. (2013)(Level IV) have carried out similar studies. Lee Greig (2013)(Level V) have stated in their work how food and safety hygiene can be maintained in the hospitals to prevent the patients from developing an infection by consuming contaminated food. They have stressed on how the food handlers should maintain personal hygiene while preparing or packing the food. They should not smoke in the kitchen or the serving area. The food handlers should be completely a different set of people hired by the hospital officials. The lesser contact they have with the patient the better. In this way, the safety of the food handlers also remains intact. There equipments should be clean at all times in which the food is prepared or served. Care should be taken that sink where the utensils and containers are being washed is clean too. It is necessary that the food handlers should always the monitor the temperature of the food that they are cooking and follow the HACCP guidelines at all times. Kadariya, Tara Thapaliya (2014) (Level VI), has highlighted the potential risk the enterotoxins of the pathogens causing food borne diseases poses. Lack of proper storage conditions of certain food items leads to the production of the toxins in the food. These foods can also lead to life threatening conditions if not taken proper care. Both the patients as well as the food handler are at risk from it. Martins, Hogg Otero (2012)(Level IV) have worked on food handling by a catering company that is responsible for delivering food to the hospitals in Portugal. They have outlined the issues related to the food handlers, which results into contamination of the food. Verhoef et al. (2013)(Level V) had carried out a similar study and found out the reasons of contamination of food with Norovirus. Difference and Similarities in Guidelines from New Zealand and Global Aspect The Food Safety Standards 3.2.2, which is part of the Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ), outlines the safety-based practices and general requirements while handling food. It has a lot of similarity with the food handling guidelines as stated by WHO (World Health Organization). Both the standards concentrate on the design and construction of the premises which is responsible for the preparation of the food as well as for storage of food. Both the standards agree that the food service facilities as well as the food handlers should be trained and equipped with information related to food hygiene and the transmission of pathogens through food. The standards also aim at carrying out surveys on based on random trials to determine how far the handlers are following the guidelines. The standards also outline that the foods should be properly refrigerated and cooked properly and then stored in clean vessels in order to prevent microbial contamination. Conclusion As a concluding remark, it has been noted from the evidence-based study that food borne diseases is quite nagging and it is affecting a large number of people. However, most of the times, these outbreaks at the hospitals are not recorded. Worse, the reason for the outbreak is never analyzed. It has to be curbed and it can only take place when the hospital staffs are strictly following the food handling guidelines that has been outlined by the Ministry of Health, New Zealand. The expense of treating patients at the hospitals due to HAI is huge and it has been shooting ever since. This is affecting the economy of the nation as a whole. To save those revenues that are lost only to treat patients affected by HAI, the hospital officials are becoming stringent in their ways of providing treatment and care to the patients. Awareness is being raised among the staffs that are directly responsible in preparing and handling of the food in the hospitals. Not just in New Zealand alone, but also o n a global scale, standards need to be improved in food handling in hospitals. The mortality rate along with the morbidity rate has to be managed by safeguarding the patients from contracting food borne diseases. References: Abdul-Mutalib, N. A., Abdul-Rashid, M. F., Mustafa, S., Amin-Nordin, S., Hamat, R. A., Osman, M. (2012). Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding food hygiene and sanitation of food handlers in Kuala Pilah, Malaysia.Food Control,27(2), 289-293. Australian Food Safety Information Council. (2014). Retrieved on 11th November, 2016. https://foodsafety.asn.au/ Belliot, G., Lopman, B. A., Ambert?Balay, K., Pothier, P. (2014). The burden of norovirus gastroenteritis: an important foodborne and healthcare?related infection.Clinical Microbiology and Infection,20(8), 724-730. Bitler, E. J., Matthews, J. E., Dickey, B. W., Eisenberg, J. N. S., Leon, J. S. (2013). Norovirus outbreaks: a systematic review of commonly implicated transmission routes and vehicles.Epidemiology and infection,141(08), 1563-1571. Castle, N., Wagner, L., Ferguson, J., Handler, S. (2014). Hand hygiene deficiency citations in nursing homes.Journal of Applied Gerontology,33(1), 24-50. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (2012). Fatal foodborne Clostridium perfringens illness at a state psychiatric hospital--Louisiana, 2010.MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report,61(32), p.605. Fox, N.R. D., LMNT, C., Freifeld, A. G. (2012). The neutropenic diet reviewed: Moving toward a safe food handling approach.Oncology,26(6), 572. Jevnik, M., Ovca, A., Bauer, M., Fink, R., Oder, M., Sevek, F. (2013). Food safety knowledge and practices among elderly in Slovenia.Food control,31(2), 284-290. Kadariya, J., Smith, T. C., Thapaliya, D. (2014). Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal food-borne disease: an ongoing challenge in public health.BioMed research international,2014. Lee, M. B., Greig, J. D. (2013). A review of nosocomial Salmonella outbreaks: infection control interventions found effective.Public health,127(3), 199-206. Lopez, L., Carey-Smith, G., Lim, E., Cressey, P., Pirie, R. (2013). Annual Report Concerning Foodborne Disease in New Zealand. Management of Food Safety in Hospital and Health Service Facilities. Department of Health. Retrieved on 11th November. https://www.health.qld.gov.au/directives/docs/att/qh-hsdatt-028-1-1.pdf Martins, R. B., Hogg, T., Otero, J. G. (2012). Food handlers knowledge on food hygiene: The case of a catering company in Portugal.Food Control,23(1), 184-190. Mullan, B., Allom, V., Sainsbury, K., Monds, L. A. (2015). Examining the predictive utility of an extended theory of planned behaviour model in the context of specific individual safe food-handling.Appetite,90, 91-98. Oludare, A. O., Ogundipe, A., Odunjo, A., Komolafe, J., Olatunji, I. (2016). Knowledge and Food Handling Practices of Nurses in a Tertiary Health Care Hospital in Nigeria.Journal of environmental health,78(6), 32. Pinto, R. O. M., Correia, E. F., Pereira, K. C., Sobrinho, C., de Souza, P., Silva, D. F. D. (2015). Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil.Brazilian Journal of Microbiology,46(2), 583-589. Porsbol, L. J., Jensen, T., Norrung, B. (2013). Occurrence and control of viruses in food handling environments and in ready-to-eat foods.Food Borne Viruses and Prions and Their Significance for Public Health, 181. Safe Food Handling. World Health Organization. Retrieved on 11th November, 2016. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/36870/1/9241542454_eng.pdf Stewardson, A. J., Renzi, G., Maury, N., Vaudaux, C., Brassier, C., Fritsch, E., ... van de Laar, T. (2014). Extended-Spectrum -LactamaseProducing Enterobacteriaceae in Hospital Food: A Risk Assessment.Infection Control Hospital Epidemiology,35(04), 375-383. Trivedi, T. K., DeSalvo, T., Lee, L., Palumbo, A., Moll, M., Curns, A., ... Lopman, B. A. (2012). Hospitalizations and mortality associated with norovirus outbreaks in nursing homes, 2009-2010.Jama,308(16), 1668-1675. Verhoef, L., Gutierrez, G. J., Koopmans, M., Boxman, I. L. (2013). Reported behavior, knowledge and awareness toward the potential for norovirus transmission by food handlers in Dutch catering companies and institutional settings in relation to the prevalence of norovirus.Food control,34(2), 420-427.
Saturday, March 21, 2020
The Social Significance of the Megachurch A megachurch refers to a church that has two thousand or more worshippers in a normal weekend attendance. In the United States, there are more than one thousand three hundred megachurches. Among these churches, approximately fifty of them record an attendance of ten to forty seven thousand members.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Reflection Paper: Religion in America specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is worth pointing out that while three thousand individual Catholic churches have two thousand or more members during a normal Sunday Mass, they are included in the megachurch movement (Johnstone 60). In Protestant Christianity, megachurches are regarded as an extremely vital development. In the US, these congregations have increased four times in the previous twenty years. Megachurches have greatly impacted on the American society. In addition to the normal church services , members receive a wide array of secular amenities. These include recreational services, sports, social care and health, and education. The demographic profile of the megachurches is composed of middle- class, white households (Radcliffe-Brown 39). Moreover, these churches are founded in extensive urban borders of cities that are growing rapidly. In my opinion, megachurches are diverting Christians to secular public practices. Moreover, the additional services provide exurban people with a personalized civic setting, thereby the opportunity to mingle within a standardized and secure setting. Another interesting quote is that megachurches are an elite ethical community that enhances segregation patterns. In addition, they are slowly contributing to withdrawal and secession processes. Not only have megachurches impacted on social, but also political life. They are actively involved in campaigns and presidential elections in regard to conservative social concerns. This has made them v ital political actors. Urban places contain complete subsections, which are characterised by autonomous growth. My take is that the self- contained nodes are connected by telecommunication and highway systems. However, it is sad to note that these sites are isolated from adjacent sites (Johnstone 6). It is worth noting that fortification and privatization has increased greatly in urban places. My opinion is that these are the moves of affluent groups to isolate themselves physically from the public. Moreover, they also aim at separating from desperate social groups. These are composed of the destitute, homeless, poor, and desperate. Therefore, the affluent groups protect themselves from moral confusion that might result from their interaction with minority groups. Megachurches encourage volunteerism, contributions, and frequent attendance (Radcliffe-Brown 43). It is worth pointing out that megachurches are no longer worship places. They are multi- purpose places including malls, res orts, town squares, and extended families. They use proficient corporate practices and deal with multi- million budgets. Although, megachurches are isolated physically, they are exceptionally universally connected.Advertising Looking for essay on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Future of Religion in America It is worth noting that the USA is an exceptionally religious nation. According to a political scientist, Robert Putman, an average American is by a large extent more religious compared to an average Iranian. For the previous fifty years, Americans have become extremely polarized in politics and religion. Before, there was no link between how often an individual attended church services, and their political vote. However, this is no longer the case (Johnstone 106). Currently, the bond between politics and religion is growing stronger each day. The religious communities in America contribute greatly t o the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s democracy. However, exceptionally high doses of religion end up intoxicating civic life (Radcliffe-Brown 34). Numerous countries admit that US is a diverse, religiously committed, and amazingly tolerant. There has been an escalation in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions across religious confines, which is a silent undercurrent. In my opinion, these interactions also include intermarriages, which go beyond the contemporary religious demarcations. In addition, people have a high likelihood of shifting from one religion to another, which was uncommon several years ago. My take is that religious shifts will increase more in future. Individuals from various religious backgrounds were overwhelmed when they were permitted voice their opinion in the public sphere. However, the young people were not impressed when politics and religion merged in the 1980s. During this period, many people withdrew from the organized religions. I approximate that five percent of the entire popu lation in America belong to no religion (Johnstone 56). Furthermore, there are thirty percent youths who are not attached to any religion. My take is that this number will increase greatly in future. According to these youths, they belong to God as opposed to a recognizable religion. I think that the level of religiosity in America will reduce greatly in future. This is attributable to the fact that since the young generation has no concern for religion; this habit will be carried on into their adulthood. In addition, younger generations will copy this habit. Americans youths are arguing that if religion is all about homophobia and conservative politics, then they have nothing to do with it. A good quote to note is that a transformation of religion in America will impact on the social arena, individual morality, and public life. There, there is a need for private and public sectors to think of the future impacts of changes on religion. Consequently, they will be able to react with a vivid vision and creativity. Works Cited Johnstone, Ronald. Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion. New York: Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Reflection Paper: Religion in America specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred R. Ã¢â¬Å"Religion and society.Ã¢â¬ The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 75.1/2 (1945): 33-43. Print. 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Thursday, March 5, 2020
Critical Analysis of a Research Paper Critical Analysis of a Research Paper Critical Analysis of a Research Paper: Helpful Tips Making of critical analysis of research papers may possess some difficulties for students. First of all, it is because you should not only study a research paper you have to analyze but also have at least some general knowledge about an issue that is investigated in it. Otherwise, how can you define strong and weak points of this work? Of course, to make good discussion of the issue you should be aware of this issue. Besides, when writing your critical analysis of a research paper you should take into account that the style of your analysis should correspond, to some extent, to that of the research paper it is written on. Although there are certain requirements to writing of assignment analysis it goes without saying that the style of analyzing of a poem, for example, is rather different from that of analyzing of a research paper. Thus, if you are provided with an assignment to write critical analysis of a research paper you s hould do your best in order to cope with such a task! Critical Analysis of a Research Paper: Nota Bene! When writing critical analysis of a research paper keep in mind the following information:It is obvious that before getting down to your critical analysis of a research paper you should study the research paper you are going to analyze. But first of all, you should study the subject it focuses on. So, find and study some information on the issue. You should get the point to make really thorough analysis. After studying the issue in question read the research paper. You may make some notes or consult some informational sources on the issue. Remember: good critical analysis is based on the deep studying of the subject. Your critical analysis should be thorough. But if it covers the whole research paper, you will not be able to put it into several pages. Be sure of that! So, you should concentrate your analysis on a certain point. Your work will be small but deep in thi s case. Thus, after studying the research paper and all necessary additional information you should point out an aspect that seems to be the most interesting for analyzing. Put it in the form of a thesis statement. Pay attention that it should depict fully the subject of your critical analysis. When thinking over your analysis make an outline containing the main points that you want to dwell on. That will help you make your work well-structured. Pay attention to your writing style. Avoid slang elements, jargon, idioms and other colloquial units.Be sure that this information will help you cope with your critical analysis of a research paper.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
The Financial Crisis - Essay Example The valuable lessons learned from the crisis will also be discussed herein. Bear Stearns, AIG, Lehmann Brothers, Northern Rock, and Goldman Sachs are some elite names that suffered most because of the economic crisis also known as recession. Lehmann Brothers filed for bankruptcy while AIG and a few other elites just hung in there with the skin of their teeth. This economic crisis is still having repercussions on countries such as Greece and Spain; the whole of Euro Zone is facing a financial turmoil. There are a few other countries that have been not so severely affected by the same. The crisis was triggered off because of unchecked debt; banks kept issuing loans to people who invested heavily in buying assets; several things were taken for granted but when proved otherwise, there was hardly a place in the world to hide. Overvaluation in real estate is perhaps the biggest cause of the current economic crisis. It is better known as the subprime crisis in the US. The likes of Lehmann B rothers and other financial services went bust because they kept issuing credit to the people who thought the property price would increase and they would be easily able to pay off the debt that they are borrowing. It did not turn out that way and there was a short of equity. This is exactly why the financial institutions went bankrupt. The overvaluation is the biggest factor that caused the current economic crisis. Factors such as bad income tax practices have added insult to injury, bad mortgage lending also contributed heavily to this current economic crisis. Ã¢â¬Å"The way to address the root cause is to let house prices drop to where an average house is within the means of an average household.Ã (Or, alternatively, boost the income of the average household to the point that they can afford an average house.Ã But that's very hard.Ã Letting houses prices go on falling, although painful for everyone who owns a house or who has lent money to someone who owns a house, is ve ry easy)Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Root Cause of the Financial CrisisÃ¢â¬ ). Role of Monetary Policy Some of the main plausible reasons that caused the recent financial crisis have been identified in the above sections. According to Brunnermeie, cheap mortgage financing to sub-standard borrowers fuelled the boom in the U.S. housing market. Three factors were primarily responsible for the fall of the housing market in the U.S. (which, in essence, constituted a very small segment of the financial market in the country) transforming into a global contagion. First, the Ã¢â¬Å"originate and distributeÃ¢â¬ banking model, together with the high rate of securitization, led to declining lending standards and made it impossible to re-price the complex structured products. This significantly eroded the confidence level of banks, thereby disrupting the inter-bank markets and credit flow. Second, banks relied heavily on short-term funding sources, hence raising the risk of funding. Finally, the ever-g rowing integration of global financial systems and the increasing interest towards structured financial instruments quickly transmitted the crisis to all the major regions of the world. Gourinchas focused on the role of monetary policy in the recent financial contagion as well as the role played by exogenous influences, particularly the rising external deficits referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"Global Imbalances.Ã¢â¬ According to Gourinchas, both explanations are not satisfactory as the sole reason behind the crisis. This opinion has